Batteries are devices that consist of electrochemical cells used to provide power to different electric circuits. These electric circuits consume electricity to operate. These circuits may be a machine, device, toy, or many other devices like flashlights, cameras, smartphones, generators, etc.
A battery is always used to provide DC electric supply. These cannot be operated on AC supplies and these can be charged and reused and these cannot be charged and can be used only one time. Batteries consist of two terminals one is the cathode and the other is the anode. The cathode terminal is called the positive terminal of the battery and the anode terminal is called the negative terminal of the battery.in batteries, current flows through the positive terminal to the negative terminal. Batteries consist of electrolytes which are plates of varied materials like sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. These materials have the capacity to conduct electricity. When batteries are connected to the circuits the electrolytes start moving their ions and a chemical reaction is completed on both terminals and starts delivering energy to the connected circuit. This all process takes place in a second of time and starts delivering power to the connected circuit.
Types of batteries
There are many types of batteries. The major types of batteries are as follows:
- Primary Batteries
- Secondary Batteries
Primary batteries are the batteries that are used once and cannot be used again. Their chemical reaction is not reversible and these batteries cannot be recharged. These batteries are commonly used in portable devices and in devices that take minor currents like alarm clocks, calculators, small toys, etc. These batteries have higher energy densities as compared to the rechargeable batteries. Alkaline batteries and zinc-carbon batteries are the primary batteries.
Secondary batteries are batteries that are used again and again and can be recharged. Their chemical reaction is reversible and these batteries can be recharged easily. These batteries are provided in a discharged state and must be charged for first use. These batteries are recharged by the devices called chargers. The most important type of secondary batteries is lead acid batteries which are used in vehicles, automotive, etc. These types of batteries are used in a wide range such as in generators, solar systems for backup storage of energy, in houses for uninterruptable power supplies, etc. Secondary batteries include valve-regulated lead acid batteries(VRLA), dry cells, and lithium-ion batteries.