For strong walls of a house, bricks are used as one of the main material for construction along with cement and iron. To select the best brick some quality testing method are available so that at the site itself you can check its strength, one of the test is that, by lifting the brick block to the height above your shoulder and dropping it down, the force of gravity and the weight of the brick give enough stress on brick so that it is determined to the bonding strength of the clay used for making the bricks, the result of the test should not break the brick into pieces if the brick stays as it is than the lot can be used for construction . The second test is very simple just place the brick in a bucket full of water, allow it to stay for 1 to 2 hours, if it don’t get dispersed into the water that it is good brick, there are method used for determining the water proof bricks too.
Brick made of clay should be baked at the temperatures 700 to 1100 oC, and the check the porosity of the brick from the contract company because it is the main property which determine the mechanical strength of the brick, the porosity values should be around 1 to 2.5 microns which are capable of withstanding any weather conditions, acid rains and salt crystallization.
Bricks are classified of two types based on carbonate contain
- Brick with carbonates: Calcium and Magnesium silicates are present which are baked at temperatures 900 to 1000 centigrade and have micropores of size less than one micron, they show high resistance to salty weather.
- Brick without carbonate: Mullite percentage is more in it and baked at 1100 centigrade temperatures, its macropores are greater than 1 micron. Used for all regular construction away from salt water.
Building stones are used for primary basement foundations and involve granites, quartzite, basalt, marble, limestone, and sandstone in their category. These stones are classified into dimension stones and crushed stones. The dimension stone is a rectangular block that has the property of poor conduction of heat and resistance to water. Clay formed from inorganic materials are and its basic components are Kaolinite: Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O, Montmorillonite: Al2O3.4SiO2.nH2O
Satellites are the electrical dielectric compound made of talc, a kaolinite material used for electrical porcelain bodies, this is known as white clay.
Clay bodies are differentiated into four types 1. Earthenware 2. Fine china 3. Stoneware 4. Porcelain
The apparent porosity of earthenware is usually 6-8% and may exceed 15%, for Fine china usually less than 1% , for Stoneware less than 3% and usually 1-2% and for Porcelain less than 1% and usually zero.
Refractory bricks are commonly made from Silica, Silicon carbide, Magnesite, Dolomite, and Zircon.
Engineering Construction Marvel Eiffel Tower, Paris
During 1889 a Universal Exhibition was conducted in Paris, on this occasion a temporary structure built and that is known as Eiffel Tower. Due to its attractive design and fame which it became so popular it is made a permanent structure ever.
The Engineer who designed the framework of Statue of Liberty also designed and built this world’s tallest building until 1930 and he is so called Engineer Gustave Eiffel(1832-1923)
It was just built in two years, two months and five days, by a work fleet of 300 steelworkers. The structure contains 18,038 pieces of steel. The total weight of the tower is about 7,715 tonnes. 2.5 million Rivets are used for connecting all steel blocks.
The total surface area of the Eiffel tower is about 220,000 square meters. The metal is protected from corrosion with paints which it consumes nearly 60 tonnes and for every ten years, this coating of paint is done on its surface.The tower height is 300.5 meters and the antenna on its top is 20.3m. Based on weather conditions due to the temperature difference in the surrounding during hot and cold atmosphere, it can shrink and expand up to 15 cm.