Spatial Database –
Spatial databases contain spatial-related information. Examples include geographic (map) databases, very-large-scale integration (VLSI), or computed aided design database and medical and satellite image databases. Spatial data may be represented raster formate, consisting of the n-dimensional bit map or pixel map.
For example, a 2-D satellite image may be represented as raster data where each pixel registers the rainfall in a given area. Maps can be represented in vector format, where roads bridges buildings and lakes are represented as unions or overlays of basics geometric constructs, such as points, lines, polygons. and the partitions and networks formed by these components.
Applications of Geographic Database —
Geographic databases have numerous applications, ranging from forestry and ecology planning to provide public service information regarding the location of telephone and electric cables, pipes, and sewage systems. In addition, geographic databases are commonly used for in-vehicle navigation and dispatching systems. An example of such a system for taxis would .store a city map with information regarding one-way streets, suggested routes for moving from region A to region B during rush hour, and the location of restaurants and hospitals, as well as the current location of each drive.
The relationship among a set of spatial objects can be examined in order to discover which Subsets of objects are spatially auto-correlated or associated. Clusters and outliers can be identified by spatial cluster analysis. Moreover, spatial classification can be performed to construct models for prediction based on the relevant set of features of the spatial objects. Furthermore, “Spatial data cubes” may be constructed to organize data into multidimensional structures and hierarchies, on which OLAP operations (such as drill-down and roll-up) can be performed.