What are the different types of advanced data and information systems? Explain them.

Different type of advanced data and information systems and their explanation are as follows-

1. Object-relational database –

object-relational databases are constructed based on an object-relational model. this model extends the relational model by providing a rich data type for handling Complex object and object orientation. Because most sophisticated database applications need to handle Complex objects and structure object-relational database are becoming increasingly popular in industry and applications. Conceptually, the object-relational data model inherits the essential concept of an object-oriented database where in general terms each entity is considered as an object. Data and code relating to an object are encapsulated in a single unit. Each object has associated with it has followed-

  1. A set of variables that describes the object. this corresponds to attributes in Entity relationship models.
  2. A set of the message that object can use to communicate with their object or with the rest of the Database system
  3. A set of the method, each method holds the code and implementation of a message.

The object that shares a common set of properties can be grouped into an object class. Each object is an instance of its class. Object classes can be organized into class/subclass Hierarchies so that each class represents properties that are common to object in the class, for instance, and employee class can contain variable like name, address, and birth data suppose that the class sales_persons is a subclass of a class, employee, a sales_person object would inherit all of the variable pertaining to the superclass of employees.

For data mining in object-relational’ systems, techniques, need to be developed for handling complex object structures, complex data types class and subclass hierarchies, property inheritance, and methods procedures.


2. Temporal Database –

A temporal. the database typically stores relational data that include time-related attributes. These attributes may involve several timestamps, each having different semantics.

3. Sequence Database –

A sequence database stores sequence of ordered events, with or without a concrete notion of time. Examples include customer shopping sequences, web clickstreams, and biological sequences.

4. Time-series Database –

A time-series database stores sequences database of values or events obtained over the repeated measurement of time. Example Include data collected from the stock exchange, inventory control, and the observation of natural phenomena.

5. Spatial Database –

Spatial databases contain spatial-related information. Examples include geographic (map) databases, very-large-scale integration (VLSI), or computed aided design database and medical and satellite image databases. Spatial data may be represented raster formate, consisting of the n-dimensional bit map or pixel map.

For example, a 2-D satellite image may be represented as raster data where each pixel registers the rainfall in a given area. Maps can be represented in vector format, where roads bridges buildings and lakes are represented as unions or overlays of basics geometric constructs, such as points, lines, polygons. and the partitions and networks formed by these components.

6. Spatiotemporal Database—

A spatial database that stores spatial objects that change with time is called a spatiotemporal database, from which, interesting information can be mind. For example, we may be able to group the trends of moving objects and. identify some strangely moving vehicles, or .destinuish a bioterrorist attack from a normal outbreak of the flu based on the geographic spread of a disease with time.

7. Text Database —

Text databases are databases that contain word descriptions for objects. These word descriptions are usually not simple keywords rather long sentences or paragraphs such as product specifications, error or bug reports, warning messages, summary reports, notes’ or other documents. Text databases may be highly unstructured. Such as some Web pages on the WWW. Some text databases may be somewhat structured, that is, semistructured whereat, others are relatively well structured. Text databases with highly regular structures typically can be implemented using relational database systems.

8. Multimedia Database —

Multimedia databases store image, audio, and video data. They are used in applications such as picture content-based retrieval, voice.-email systems, video-on-demand systems, and speech-based, user interfaces that recognize spoken commands. Multimedia. databases must support large objects because data objects such as video can require gigabytes of storage. Specialized and search techniques are also required. Because video and audio data require real-time retrieval at a steady and predetermined rate in order to avoid picture or sound gaps and system buffer overflows, such data’ are referred to as continuous-media data.

9. Heterogeneous Database —

A heterogeneous database consists of a set of interconnected, autonomous component databases. The components Communicate, in order to exchange information and answer queries. Objects in one component database may differ greatly from objects in another component database, making it difficult to assimilate their semantics into the overall heterogeneous database,

10. Legacy Database-

Many enterprises acquire legacy databases as a result of the long history of information technology development (including the application of different hardware and operating systems). A legacy database a group of heterogeneous, databases that combine different kinds of data systems, such as relational or object-oriented databases, hierarchical databases, network databases, spreadsheet, multimedia database, or file systems. The heterogeneous databases in a legacy database may be connected by or inter-computer networks.

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