POWER ELECTRONICS INTERVIEW QUESTION AND ANSWER
Q: Name some of the current controlled (current driven) devices…
Ans: SCR, GTO, GTR, BJT
Q: Name some of the voltage-driven ( Voltage controlled) devices
Ans: IGBT, MCT, IGCT, SIT, MOSFET
Q: What is holding current in SCR?
Ans: It is the minimum current required to hold the SCR in a forward conduction state.
When the forward current becomes less than the holding current, SCR turns from a forward conduction state to a forward blocking state.
Q: What is the latching current in SCR?
Ans: It is the minimum current required to latch(turn on) the SCR from the forward blocking state to the forward conduction state.
Q: What are the different turn-on methods of SCR?
Ans: Forward voltage triggering
Q: What is a snubber circuit?
Ans: The snubber circuit is used for the dv/dt protection of the SCR. It is a series combination of a resistor and a capacitor in parallel with the SCR.
Q: What is the firing angle?
Ans: The angle between the zero crossing of the input voltage and the instant the SCR is fired is called as delay angle or firing angle.
Q: For High voltage applications will you prefer MOSFET or IGBT?
Ans: For High voltage applications we have to use IGBT.
Because MOSFETs are low-voltage devices. ie, Their voltage rating is lesser than IGBT.
The general rule is MOSFETs are suitable for applications that have a breakdown voltage of less than 250V.
The IGBTs are suitable for applications that have breakdown voltage up to 1000V.
Q: For High-frequency applications will you prefer MOSFET or IGBT? Why?
Ans: For High-frequency applications, MOSFET is the right choice of device. Because MOSFET has low switching losses compared to that of IGBT. The general rule of thumb is for low-frequency applications having a frequency range up to 20kHz, we have to use IGBT. For high-frequency applications having a frequency range of more than 200kHz, we have to use MOSFET
Q: What are the various parameters we have to consider while selecting IGBT?
Ans: In the IGBT datasheet, we have to focus on the following parameters Collector to emitter voltage VCESCollector Current ICCollector Dissipation PCJunction Temperature Tj
Q: For Selecting MOSFET, what are the major parameters we have to consider in the datasheet?
Ans: In the MOSFET datasheet, we have to focus on the following parameters:
Drain to Source Voltage VDSSOn state Drain to Source Resistance RDS(ON)Reverse Recovery Current IRRReverse Recovery Charge QRRGate Charge QG
Body Diode Characteristics
ID at ambient temperature
Channel power dissipation
Q: Why IGBT is very popular nowadays?
Ans: a. Lower hEAT requirements
b. Lower switching losses
c. Smaller snubber circuit requirements
Q: What are the different methods to turn on the thyristor?
Ans: a. Forward voltage triggering
b. Gate triggering
c. dv/dt triggering
d. Temperature triggering
e. Light triggering
Q: IGBT is a voltage-controlled device. Why?
Ans: Because the controlling parameter is gate-emitter voltage.
Q: Power MOSFET is a voltage-controlled device. Why?
Ans: Because the output (drain) current can be controlled by gate-source voltage.
Q: Power BJT is a current-controlled device. Why?
Ans: Because the output (collector) current can be controlled by the base current.
Q: What are the different types of power MOSFET?
Ans: a. N-channel MOSFET
b. P-channel MOSFET
Q: How can a thyristor turn off?
Ans: A thyristor can be turned off by making the current flowing through it to zero.
Q: Define latching current.
Ans: The latching current is defined as the minimum value of the anode current which it must attain during the turn-on process to maintain conduction when the gate signal is removed.
Q: Define holding current.
Ans: The holding current is defined as the minimum value of the anode current below
which it must fall to for turning off the thyristor.
Q: What is a snubber circuit?
Ans: It consists of a series combination of a resistor and a capacitor in parallel with the thyristors. It is mainly used for dv / dt protection.
Q: What losses occur in a thyristor during working conditions?
Ans: a. Forward conduction losses
b. Loss due to leakage current during forward and reverse blocking.
c. Switching losses at turn-on and turn-off.
d. Gate triggering loss.
Q: Define hard-driving or over-driving.
Ans: When the gate current is several times higher than the minimum gate current
required, a thyristor is said to be hard-fired or over-driven. Hard-firing of a thyristor
reduces its turn-on time and enhances its di/dt capability.
Q: Define circuit turn-off time.
Ans: It is defined as the time during which a reverse voltage is applied across the thyristor during its commutation process.
Q: Why circuit turn-off time should be greater than the thyristor turn-off time?
Ans: Circuit turn-off time should be greater than the thyristor turn-off time for reliable turn-off, otherwise the device may turn on at an undesired instant, a process called commutation failure.
Q: What is the turn-off time for converter-grade SCRs and inverter-grade SCRs?
Ans: Turn-off time for converter grade SCRs is 50 – 100 ms turn-off time for the converter grade SCRs and inverter grade SCRs and for inverter grade SCRs is 3 – 50 ms.
Q: What are the advantages of GTO over SCR?
Ans: a. Elimination of commutation of commutating components in forced commutation, resulting in a reduction in cost, weight, and volume.
b. Reduction in acoustic noise and electromagnetic noise due to the elimination of commutation chokes.
c. Faster turn-off, permitting high switching frequencies.
d. Improved efficiency of the converters.
Q: What are the advantages of free-wheeling diode in a rectifier circuit?
Ans: The input power factor is improved. It prevents the output voltage from becoming negative. The load current waveform is improved.
Q: What is meant by commutation?
Ans: The process of changing the direction of current flow in a particular path of the circuit. It is used to turn off the SCR.
Q. What is natural commutation?
Ans: The process of the current flowing through the thyristor going through a natural zero and enabling the thyristor to turn off is called natural commutation.
Q: What is forced commutation?
Ans: The process of the current flowing through the thyristor being forced to become zero by external circuitry is called forced commutation.
Q: What are the types of commutation with respect to the commutation process?
Ans: Voltage commutated chopper
Current commutated chopper
Load commutated chopper
Q: To design the buck converter, what is the basic & essential information (parameters) we need to get from the Customer?
Ans: We need the following inputs from the customer, Output Voltage VOUTInput Voltage VINOutput Current (load current) IOUTMaximum Ripple voltage allowed at the output side efficiency of the converter.
Q. What is meant by cyclo-converter?
Ans: It is also known as a frequency changer. It converts input power at one frequency to output power at another frequency with one-stage conversion.
Q. What are the types of cyclo-converters?
Ans: Step up cyclo-converter
Step down cyclo-converter.
Q. What is a step-down cyclo-converter?
Ans: It is the converter whose output frequency is less than the input frequency.
Q. What is a step-up cyclo-converter?
Ans: It is the converter whose output frequency is more than the input frequency.
Q. What does the Voltmeter in AC mode show? Is it the RMS value or the peak value?
Ans: The multimeter in AC mode shows the RMS value of the voltage or current. Also when it is in DC mode it will show the RMS value only.
Q. What are the control strategies of the chopper?
Ans: The control strategies of the chopper are
- Pulse width modulation PWM (Variable TON, Constant frequency)
- Frequency modulation (Constant TON or TOFF, Variable frequency)
- Current Limit Control (CLC)
Q. What is the delay angle or what is the firing angle of phase controlled rectifier?
Ans: The delay angle is the angle at which thyristors are triggered after zero crossing. After zero crossing of supply voltage, one pair of thyristors is forward-biased. After the delay angle(α) these SCRs are triggered.
Q. What is Universal Motor?
Ans: It is defined as a motor that can be operated either on a DC or single-phase AC supply at approximately the same speed and output. The universal motor is built exactly like a series DC motor. However a series DC motor cannot be run as a universal motor, even though both motors look the same internally and externally. We cannot use these motors in industrial applications due to their low efficiency (25% -35%). It has high starting torque and a variable speed characteristic. It runs at dangerously high speed on no load.
Q. Give some examples of power electronics applications in day-to-day life.
Ans: We can list a huge number of power electronics applications. A few of the applications which we can see in our daily life are
UPS – Uninterruptible Power Supply
SMPS – Switch Mode Power Supply
Speed Control of Motors
Q. What is meant by PMDC?
Ans: PMDC stands for Permanent Magnet DC Motor
A Permanent Magnet DC Motor is similar to an ordinary dc shunt motor except that its field is provided by permanent magnets instead of a salient-pole wound field structure.
There are three types of permanent magnets used for such motors namely;
(i) Alnico Magnets
(ii) Ceramic magnets
(iii) Rare-earth magnets
The major advantages are low noise, small size, high efficiency, and low manufacturing cost.
Q: What is meant by V/F control?
Ans: When the frequency is reduced, the input voltage must be reduced proportionally so as to maintain constant flux. Otherwise, the core will get saturated resulting in excessive iron loss and magnetizing current. This type of induction motor behavior is similar to the working of dc series motors.
Q: What are the advantages of V/F control?
Ans: 1. Smooth speed control
- Small input current and improved power factor at low-frequency start
- Higher starting torque for low-case resistance
Q: What is meant by stator current control?
Ans: The three-phase induction motor speed can be controlled by stator current control. The stator current can be varied by using a current source inverter.
Q: What is meant by dynamic braking?
Ans: Dynamic braking of electric motors occurs when the energy stored in the rotating mass is dissipated in electrical resistance. This requires the motor to operate as a generator to convert this stored energy into electrical.
Q: What is meant by plugging?
Ans: It is one method of braking of an induction motor. When the phase sequence of supply of the motor running at a speed is reversed, by interchanging connections of any two phases of the stator with respect to supply terminals, operations shift from motoring to plugging region.
Q: What is meant by rotor resistance control?
Ans: In a slip-ring induction motor, variable resistances are connected in the rotor circuit. By controlling the rotor resistance, the motor speed can be controlled as well as increase the starting torque and reduce the starting current. This method of speed control is called the rotor resistance control method.
Q: What is meant by slip power?
Ans: The portion of air gap power, that is not converted into mechanical power, is called slip power.
Slip power is nothing but the multiplication of slip(s) and airgap power (Pag)
Slip power = s. Pag
Q: What are the advantages of a slip power recovery system?
Ans: In the chopper method of speed control for SRM, the slip power is wasted in the external resistance and the efficiency is also reduced. However, instead of wasting the slip power can be recovered by various schemes for the speed control of slip ring induction motor. This system is called a slip power recovery system. The slip power can be recovered and fed back to the supply. So the overall efficiency also improved.
Q: What is meant by Electrical Drives?
Ans: Systems employed for motion control are called “Drives” and may employ any of the prime movers such as diesel or petrol engines, gas or steam turbines, hydraulic motors, and electric motors for supplying mechanical energy for motion control. Drives employing electric motors are known as ” electric drives”.
Here, We had given only the definition of an electrical drive. But if you face this question in the face-to-face interview try to explain in detail. Draw the Block diagram of the electrical drive first. During this time, you recall the basics and every part of the electrical drive system and explain in detail as possible.
Q: What are the different factors for the selection of electrical drives?
Ans: Steady-state operation requirements
Transient operation requirements
Requirements related to the source
Capital and running costs, maintenance needs, life
Space and weight restrictions
Environment and location
Q: What are the parts of electrical drives?
Ans: Electrical motors and load
Q: What are the modes of operation of electrical drives?
Acceleration including starting
Deceleration including stopping
Q: What is meant by the four-quadrant operation?
Ans: A motor operates in two modes-motoring and braking. In motoring, it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, which supports its motion. In braking, it works as a generator converting mechanical energy into electrical energy, and thus, opposes the motion. The motor can provide motoring and braking operations for both forward and reverse directions.
Q: What is meant by chopper?
Ans: Chopper converts fixed dc voltage into variable dc voltage
Q: What is a brushless DC motor?
Ans: An inverter-fed trapezoidal permanent magnet AC motor drive operating in self-controlled mode is called a brushless dc motor.
Q: What is a PMSM?
Ans: PMSM = Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor. In medium and small-size Synchronous motors a dc field can be produced by permanent magnets.
Q: Classification of PMSM?
Ans: According to the construction
- Surface-mounted PMSM
- Interior-mounted PMSM
According to the nature of voltage-induced
- Sinusoidally excited
- Trapezoidal excited
Q: What is meant by phase controlled rectifier?
Ans: It converts fixed ac voltage into a variable dc voltage.
Q: Mention some of the applications of controlled rectifiers.
Ans: a. Steel rolling mills, printing press, textile mills, and paper mills employing dc
b. DC traction
c. Electrochemical and electro-metallurgical process
d. Portable hand tool drives
e. Magnet power supplies
f. HVDC transmission system
Q: What is the function of freewheeling diodes in a controlled rectifier?
Ans: It serves two processes.
a. It prevents the output voltage from becoming negative.
b. The load current is transferred from the main thyristors to the freewheeling diode,
thereby allowing all of its thyristors to regain their blocking states.
Q: What are the advantages of freewheeling diodes in a controlled rectifier?
Ans: a. Input power factor is improved.
b. Load current waveform is improved and thus the load performance is better.
Q: What is meant by delay angle?
Ans: The delay angle is defined as the angle between the zero crossing of the input
voltage and the instant the thyristor is fired.
Q: What are the advantages of a single-phase bridge converter over a single-phase mid-point converter?
Ans: a. SCRs are subjected to a peak-inverse voltage of 2Vm in a fully controlled bridge rectifier. Hence for the same voltage and current ratings of SCrs, power handled by mid-point configuration is about
b. In the mid-point converter, each secondary winding should be able to supply the load power. As such, the transformer rating in the mid-point converter is double the load rating.
Q: What is the commutation angle or overlap angle?
Ans: The commutation period when outgoing and incoming thyristors are conducted is known as the overlap period. The angular period, when both devices share conduction is known as the commutation angle or overlap angle.
Q: What are the different methods of firing circuits for line commutated converters?
Ans: a. UJT firing circuit.
b. The cosine wave crossing pulse timing control.
c. Digital firing schemes.
Q: Give an expression for the average voltage of single-phase semi-converters.
Ans: Average output voltage Vdc= (Vm / π) (1 + cos α).
Q: What are the advantages of six pulse converter?
Ans: a. Commutation is made simple.
b. Distortion on the ac side is reduced due to the reduction in lower-order harmonics.
c. Inductance reduced in series is considerably reduced.
Q: What is meant by dc chopper?
Ans: A dc chopper is a high-speed static switch used to obtain variable dc voltage from a constant dc voltage.
Q: What is the duty cycle?
Ans: It is the ratio of the ON time of the chopper to the total time period of the chopper.
D = Ton / [Ton + Toff]
Q: What is the effect of having more duty cycles and fewer duty cycles?
Ans: If the duty cycle D is greater than 0.5, the core would not be completely demagnetized at the end of the off-period, and a DC magnetization of the core would build up, resulting in core saturation.
Q: What are the characteristics of an ideal Opamp?
Ans: Infinite open loop voltage gain
Infinite input impedance
Zero output impedance
Zero offset voltage
Q: What are the applications of dc chopper?
Ans: a. Battery-operated vehicles
b. Traction motor control in electric traction
c. Trolly cars
d. Marine hoists
e. Mine haulers
f. Electric braking.
Q: What are the applications of dc chopper?
Ans: Chopper provides
b. Smooth acceleration
c. Fast dynamic response
Q: What is meant by step-up and step-down chopper?
Ans: In a step-down chopper or Buck converter, the average output voltage is less than
the input voltage. In a step-up chopper or Boost converter, the average output voltage is more than the input voltage.
Q: Write down the expression for the average output voltage for stepping down the chopper.
Ans: Average output voltage for step-down chopper V0
= αVs, αis the duty cycle
Q: Write down the expression for the average output voltage for the step-up chopper.
Ans: The average output voltage for step-down chopper V0= Vs, αis the duty cycle
Q: What is meant by the duty cycle?
Ans: The duty cycle is defined as the ratio of the on-time of the chopper to the total time
period of the chopper. It is denoted by α.
Q: What are the two types of control strategies?
Ans: a. Time Ratio Control (TRC)
b. Current Limit Control method (CLC)
Q: What is meant by TRC?
Ans: In TRC, the value of Ton/ T is varied in order to change the average output
Q: What are the two types of TRC?
Ans: a. Constant frequency control
b. Variable frequency control
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Q: What is meant by FM control in a dc chopper?
Ans: In frequency modulation control, the chopping frequency f (or the chopping period T) is varied. Here two controls are possible.
a. On-time T onis kept constant
b. Off period T office kept constant.
Q: What is meant by PWM control in the dc chopper?
Ans: In this control method, the on-time Ton is varied but the chopping frequency is kept
constant. The width of the pulse is varied and hence this type of control is known as PulseWidth Modulation (PWM).
Q: Write down the expression for the average output voltage for the step-down and step-up chopper.
Ans: The average output voltage for step down chopper is VO= αVS.
The average output voltage for the step-up chopper is VO= αVSx [1/ ( 1- α)].
Q: What are the different types of choppers with respect to the commutation process?
Ans: a. Voltage commutated chopper.
b. Current commutated chopper.
c. Load commutated chopper.
Q: What is meant by voltage commutation?
Ans: In this process, a charged capacitor momentarily reverses the biases of the conducting thyristor and turns it off.
Q: What is meant by current commutation?
Ans: In this process, a current pulse is made to flow in the reverse direction through the conducting thyristor and when the net thyristor current becomes zero, it is turned off.
Q: What is meant by load commutation?
Ans: In this process, the load current flowing through the thyristor either becomes zero or is transferred to another device from the conducting thyristor.
Q: What are the advantages of the current commutated chopper?
Ans: a. The capacitor always remains charged with the correct polarity.
b. Commutation is reliable as the load current is less than the peak commutation current
c. The auxiliary thyristor TA is naturally commutated as its current passes through
Q: What are the advantages of load load-commutated chopper?
Ans: a. Commutating inductor is not required.
b. It is capable of commutating any amount of load current.
c. It can work at high frequencies in the order of kHz.
d. Filtering requirements are minimal.
Q: What are the disadvantages of load load-commutated chopper?
Ans: a. For high-power applications, efficiency becomes very low because of high
switching losses at high operating frequencies.
b. Freewheeling diode is subjected to twice the supply voltage.
c. Peak load voltage is equal to twice the supply voltage.
d. The commutating capacitor has to carry full load current at a frequency of half-chopping frequency.
e. One thyristor pair should be turned on only when the other pair is commutated.
This can be realized by sensing the capacitor current that is alternating.
Q: What is meant by an inverter?
Ans: A device that converts DC power into AC power at the desired output voltage and frequency is called an inverter.
Q: What are the applications of an inverter?
Ans: a. Adjustable speed drives
b. Induction heating
c. Stand-by aircraft power supplies
e. HVDC transmission
Q: What are the main classifications of inverters?
Ans: a. Voltage Source Inverter
b. Current Source Inverter
Q: Why thyristors are not preferred for inverters?
Ans: Thyristors require extra commutation circuits for turn off which resulting Increased complexity of the circuit. For these reasons, thyristors are not preferred for inverters.
Q: How output frequency is varied in the case of a thyristor?
Ans: The output frequency is varied by varying the turn-off time of the thyristors in the inverter circuit, i.e. the delay angle of the thyristors is varied.
Q: Give two advantages of CSI.
Ans: a. CSI does not require any feedback diodes.
b. Commutation circuit is simple as it involves only thyristors.
Q: What is the main drawback of a single-phase half-bridge inverter?
Ans: It requires a 3-wire dc supply.
Q: Why diodes should be connected in antiparallel with the thyristors in inverter circuits?
Ans: For RL loads, load current will not be in phase with load voltage and the diodes
connected in antiparallel will allow the current to flow when the main thyristors are
turned off. These diodes are called feedback diodes.
Q: What types of inverters require feedback diodes?
Ans: VSI with RL load.
Q: What is meant by a series inverter?
Ans: An inverter in which the commutating elements are connected in series with the
load is called a series inverter.
Q: What is the condition to be satisfied in the selection of L and C in a series inverter?
Ans: R2< 4LC
Q: What is meant by a parallel inverter?
Ans: An inverter in which the commutating elements are connected in parallel with the
load is called a parallel inverter.
Q: What are the applications of a series inverter?
Ans: The thyristors series inverter produces an approximately sinusoidal waveform
at a high output frequency, ranging from 200 Hz to 100kHz. It is commonly used for fixed-output applications such as
a. Ultrasonic generators.
b. Induction heating.
c. Sonar Transmitter
d. Fluorescent lighting.
Q: How is the inverter circuit classified based on commutation circuitry?
Ans: a. Line commutated inverters.
b. Load commutated inverters.
c. Self-commutated inverters.
d. Forced commutated inverters.
Q: What is meant by McMurray inverter?
Ans: It is an impulse commutated inverter which relies on LC circuit and an auxiliary
thyristor for commutation in the load circuit.
Q: What are the applications of a CSI?
Ans: a. Induction heating
b. Lagging VAR compensation
c. Speed control of ac motors
d. Synchronous motor starting.
Q: What is meant by PWM control?
Ans: In this method, a fixed dc input voltage is given to the inverter and a controlled ac output voltage is obtained by adjusting the on and off periods of the inverter components. This is the most popular method of controlling the output voltage and this method is termed as PWM control.
Q: What are the advantages of PWM control?
Ans: a. The output voltage can be obtained without any additional components.
b. Lower-order harmonics can be eliminated or minimized along with its output voltage control. As the higher-order harmonics can be filtered easily, the filtering requirements are minimized.
Q: What are the disadvantages of the harmonics present in the inverter system?
Ans: a. Harmonic currents will lead to excessive heating in the induction motors. This will reduce the load-carrying capacity of the motor.
b. If the control and the regulating circuits are not properly shielded, harmonics from power ride can affect their operation and malfunctioning can result.
c. Harmonic currents cause losses in the ac system and can even sometimes produce resonance in the system. Under resonant conditions, the instrumentation and metering can be affected.
d. On critical loads, torque pulsation produced by the harmonic current can be useful.
Q: What are the methods of reduction of harmonic content?
Ans: a. Transformer connections
b. Sinusoidal PWM
c. Multiple commutations in each cycle
d. Stepped wave inverters
Q: What are the disadvantages of PWM control?
Ans: SCRs are expensive as they must possess low turn-on and turn-off times.
Q: What does ac voltage controller mean?
Ans: It is a device that converts the fixed alternating voltage into a variable voltage without a change in frequency.
Q: What are the applications of ac voltage controllers?
Ans: a. Domestic and industrial heating
b. Lighting control
c. Speed control of single-phase and three-phase ac motors
d. Transformer tap changing
Q: What are the advantages of ac voltage controllers?
Ans: a. High-efficiency
b. Flexibility in control
c. Less maintenance
Q: What are the disadvantages of ac voltage controllers?
Ans: The main drawback is the introduction of harmonics in the supply current and the load voltage waveforms particularly at low output voltages.
Q: What are the two methods of control in ac voltage controllers?
Ans: a. ON-OFF control
b. Phase control
Q: What is the difference between ON-OFF control and phase control?
Ans: ON-OFF control: In this method, the thyristors are employed as switches to connect the load circuit to the source for a few cycles of the load voltage and disconnect it for another few cycles. Phase control: In this method, thyristor switches
connect the load to the ac source for a portion of each half cycle of input voltage.
Q: What is the control range of the firing angle in the voltage controller with RL load?
Ans: The control range is Φ< α<180°, where Φ= load power factor angle.
Q. What type of gating signal is used in a single-phase ac voltage controller with RL load?
Ans: High-frequency carrier gating signal is used for single-phase ac voltage controller
with RL load.
Q. What are the disadvantages of continuous gating signals?
Ans: a. More heating of the SCR gate.
b. Increases the size of the pulse transformer.
Q. What is meant by high-frequency carrier gating?
Ans: A thyristor is turned on by using a train of pulses from αto π. This type of signal is called high-frequency carrier gating.
Q. What is meant by sequence control of ac voltage regulators?
Ans: It means that the stages of voltage controllers in parallel are triggered in a proper
sequence one after the other so as to obtain a variable output with low harmonic content.
Q. What are the advantages of sequence control of ac voltage regulators?
Ans: a. System power factor is improved.
b. Harmonics are reduced in the source current and the load voltage.
Q: What is meant by cyclo-converter?
Ans: It converts input power at one frequency to output power at another frequency
with one-stage conversion. Cycloconverter is also known as a frequency changer.
Q: What are the two types of cyclo-converters?
Ans: a. Step-up cyclo-converters
b. Step-down cyclo-converters
Q: What is meant by step-up cyclo-converters?
Ans: In these converters, the output frequency is less than the supply frequency.
Q: What is meant by step-down cyclo-converters?
Ans: In these converters, the output frequency is more than the supply frequency.
Q: What are the applications of cyclo-converter?
Ans: a. Induction heating
b. Speed control of high-power ac drives
c. Static VAR generation
d. Power supply in aircraft or shipboards
Q: What is meant by a positive converter group in a cyclo converter?
Ans: The part of the cycloconverter circuit that permits the flow of current during the positive half cycle of output current is called the positive converter group.
Q: What is meant by a negative converter group in a cyclo converter?
Ans: The part of the cycloconverter circuit that permits the flow of current during the negative half cycle of output current is called the negative converter group.
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