web enotes


Importance :

Usually, the low holdup is desired by reasonable holdup is necessary for efficient column operation. The weight of liquid held in the following must be considered when determining the support loads at the bottom of the packing as well as the column itself. The higher the holdup for any particular packing the greater will be the gas pressure drop and the longer the column drainage time when shutting down. Smaller size packing tends to have greater holdup than larger packing. Further, the prediction of the liquid holdup is of interest to the designer in estimating the response of the system to variations in operating conditions.

Free calculation system for calculation of tank draining from a uniform cross-section


Holdup refers to the liquid retained in the packed column. It may be due to wetting the packing by liquid and as pools caught in the crevices between packing material.

There are three different types of liquid holdups:

1. Total holdup (ht)

2. Static holdup (hs)

3. Operating holdup (ho)

All three are expressed as cubic meters of liquid per cubic meter of packing.

1. The total holdup ht, defined as the total liquid in the packing under operating conditions.

2. The static holdup hs, defined as the liquid in the packing which does not drain from the packing when the liquid supply to the column is discontinued.

3. The operating holdup ho, defined as the liquid which continuously moves through

the packing and replacement regularly and rapidly by new liquid, represents the liquid

which will drain from the packing when the water flow is stopped.

The relation between the three holdups is given by:

ht = hs +ho

Static holdup depends upon the balance between surface tension forces tending to hold liquid in the bed and gravity or other forces that tend to displace the liquid out of the bed.

An estimate of static holdup may be made from the following relationship of Shulman et al.

        C1 µ1c2 σc3

hs = ————–


Where µ1 = Liquid viscosity, Kg/m-s

σ = Surface tension, N/m

ρ1 = Liquid density, Kg/m3

Operating holdup contributes effectively to the mass transfer rate since it provides a residence time for phase contact and surface regeneration via agglomeration and dispersion. The static holdup is limited in its contribution to mass transfer rates. In laminar regions holdup, in general, has a negative effect on the efficiency of separation.

Experimental setup

  • The experimental setup (fig) consists of a glass column 50 mm I.D. and 600 mm in length which is mounted vertically on a stand using support plates.
  • The material of construction of all lines and pipe fittings is galvanized iron. The valves and pressure tapings are of brass.
  • At the bottom of the column, a water seal is provided to prevent the leakage of air.
  • A rotameter is installed to measure the flow rate of water, which can measure the flow rate.
  • The air inlet is connected to a balance designed to give a steady flow rate of air. An orifice meter is connected to calibrated mercury U Tube Manometer to measure the flow rate of air.
  • A lever arrangement is provided which consists of two vessels. One at top of the column to drain and the other at bottom of the column to collect operating holdup. Here both the vessels move simultaneously cutting off inlet water and facilitating the collection of operating hold up in the bottom vessel. 
  •  The packing material is a Raschig ring of an Outer dia 12 mm and an Inner dia of 6 mm.

Measurement of the Operating liquid holdup

Ensuring the obtainability of reproducible data, the equipment is made ready for operation. The dry packing was thoroughly wetted by setting the water rate up to 120000 Kg/hrm2 for around ten minutes. Then the water rate was set to the desired value and the air rate was also set at approximately 100 Kg/hrm2. The water and air flow rates were kept constant for ten minutes before the operating holdup was measured. This ensured a steady flow rate. The time for collecting hold-up was fixed at five minutes as it ensured complete drainage. Simultaneously the manometer readings were recorded and the water rate was increased to the next higher value.

The different sets of packings of a series of runs were made in a similar fashion with and without air flows with increasing water rates. The water flow rate ranged from 30000 to 110000 Kg/hrm2. Lower than 30000 Kg/hrm2 water rate was not employed as it was felt that good liquid distribution could not be ensured at lower rates.

Berl Saddle – 12mm
Density of water at 28˚C = 996.26 Kg/m3 – ρw
The volumetric flow rate of water ( R) = 2 lit/min
Mass flow rate of water (L0) = 2 x 10-3 x 996.26 x 60 = 119.55 Kg/hr
Π (Dt)2 Area of packed column =

     Π (67 x 10-3 )2
= ——————–
At = 3.52 x 10-3 m2
        119.55 ho
L = ————– ——–
     3.526 x 10-3 At

= 33905.27 Kg/hr-m2

The mass flow rate of air (G)

                4.74 x 10-4 x 1.0593 x 3600
(G) = ——————————————
                         3.526 x 10-3

= 516.61 Kg/hr-m2

Operating Hold up

               The volume of water held up
ho = ———————————–
             The volume of the packed column

         250 x 10-6
= ———————————-
      3137.8 x 10-6 m3

= 0.0796 m3 / m3

Total holdup (ht) = ho + hg + hs + hst
Static holdup (hst), Solid holds (hs) are assumed to be constant for a particular packing
hs = 0.390 m3 / m3
hst = 0.239 m3 / m3


1 = 0.0796 + hg + 0.390 + 0.239

hg = 0.2914 m3 / m3

Related Search – Click Here

Aanchal Gupta

Welcome to my website! I'm Aanchal Gupta, an expert in Electrical Technology, and I'm excited to share my knowledge and insights with you. With a strong educational background and practical experience, I aim to provide valuable information and solutions related to the field of electrical engineering. I hold a Bachelor of Engineering (BE) degree in Electrical Engineering, which has equipped me with a solid foundation in the principles and applications of electrical technology. Throughout my academic journey, I focused on developing a deep understanding of various electrical systems, circuits, and power distribution networks.

Leave a Reply