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The magnetic flux ϕ set up in the core of a transformer when an alternating voltage is applied to its primary winding is also alternating and is sinusoidal.

Let ϕm be the maximum value of the flux and f be the frequency of the supply. The time for 1 cycle of the alternating flux is the periodic time T, where T = (1/f) seconds

The flux rises sinusoidally from zero to its maximum value in the (1/4) cycle, and the time for the (1/4) cycle is (1/4f) seconds. Hence the average rate of change of flux = (ϕm/ (1/4f)) = 4f ϕm Wb/s, and since 1Wb/s D 1 volt, the average emf induced in each turn = 4f ϕm volts. As the flux ϕ varies sinusoidally, then a sinusoidal emf will be induced in each turn of both primary and secondary windings.

For a sine wave,

Form Factor = r.m.s Value / Average Value

= 1.11

Hence r.m.s. value = form factor*average value = 1.11 * average value Thus r.m.s. e.m.f. induced in

each turn

=1.11 * 4fϕm volts

=4.44fϕm volts

Therefore, r.m.s. value of e.m.f. induced in primary,

E1 = 4.44 f ϕmN1 volts

and r.m.s. value of e.m.f. induced in secondary,

E2 = 4.44 f 8ϕN2 volts

Dividing E1 by E2



Some small transformers for low-power applications are constructed with air between the two coils. Such transformers are inefficient because the percentage of the flux from the first coil that links the second coil is small. The voltage induced in the second coil is determined as follows.


where N is the number of turns in the coil, dϕ/dt is the time rate of change of flux linking the coil, and ϕ is the flux in lines.

At a time when the applied voltage to the coil is E and the flux linking the coils is ϕ lines, the

the instantaneous voltage of the supply is:

Since the amount of flux ϕ linking the second coil is a small percentage of the flux from the first coil, the voltage induced into the second coil is small. The number of turns can be increased to increase the voltage output, but this will increase costs. The need then is to increase the amount of flux from the first coil that links the second coil.

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Aanchal Gupta

Welcome to my website! I'm Aanchal Gupta, an expert in Electrical Technology, and I'm excited to share my knowledge and insights with you. With a strong educational background and practical experience, I aim to provide valuable information and solutions related to the field of electrical engineering. I hold a Bachelor of Engineering (BE) degree in Electrical Engineering, which has equipped me with a solid foundation in the principles and applications of electrical technology. Throughout my academic journey, I focused on developing a deep understanding of various electrical systems, circuits, and power distribution networks.

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