Electrical Transformers | Use of Power Transformer, Types of Transformer

Use of Power Transformer

Generation of electrical power at low voltage levels is very cost-effective. Hence electrical power is generated at a low voltage level. Theoretically, this low voltage level power can be transmitted to the receiving end. But if the voltage level of a power is increased, the current of the power is reduced which causes a reduction in ohmic or I2R losses in the system, a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the conductor i.e. reduction in capital cost of the system and it also improves the voltage regulation of the system. Because of these, low-level power must be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This is done by a step-up transformer at the sending side of the power system network. As this high-voltage power may not be distributed to the consumers directly, this must be stepped down to the desired level at the receiving end with the help of a step-down transformer. These are the uses of electrical power transformers in the electrical power system.

Types of Transformer

Transformers can be categorized in different ways, depending on their purpose, use, construction, etc. The types of transformers are as follows:

  1. Step-Up Transformer & Step-Down Transformer – Generally used for stepping up and down the voltage level of power in transmission and distribution power networks.
  2. Three-Phase Transformer & Single-Phase Transformer – The former is generally used in the three-phase power systems as it is more cost-effective than the latter but when size matters, it is preferable to use a bank of three single-phase transformers as it is easier to transport three single-phase unit separately than one single three phase unit.
  3. Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer & Instrument Transformer – The transformer is generally used in the transmission network and is normally known as a power transformer, distribution transformer is used in the distribution network and this is a lower rating transformer and current transformer & potential transformer, we use for relay and protection purpose in electrical power system and in different instruments in industries are called instrument transformer.
  4. Two Winding Transformer & Auto Transformer – The former is generally used where the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is greater than 2. It is cost-effective to use later where the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is less than 2.
  5. Outdoor Transformer & Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are designed for installation outdoors are outdoor transformers and transformers designed for installation indoors are indoor transformers.

Below is the Connection of the Marshalling Box

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