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CLASSIFICATION OF POWER SYSTEM BUSES | types of buses in power system


A bus in a power system is defined as the vertical line at which several components of the power system like generators, loads, and feeders, etc., are connected. The buses in a power system are associated with four quantities. These quantities are the magnitude of the voltage, the phase angle of the voltage, the active or true power, and the reactive power.

Table: Classification of power system buses

Each bus in the system has four variables: voltage magnitude, voltage angle, real power, and reactive power. During the operation of the power system, each bus has two known variables and two unknowns. Generally, the bus must be classified as one of the following bus types:


This bus is considered the reference bus. It must be connected to a generator of a high rating relative to the other generators. During the operation, the voltage of this bus is always specified and remains constant in magnitude and angle. In addition to the generation assigned to it according to economic operation, this bus is responsible for supplying the losses of the system.


During the operation, the voltage magnitude at this bus is kept constant. Also, the active power supplied is kept constant at the value that satisfies the economic operation of the system. Most probably, this bus is connected to a generator where the voltage is controlled using the excitation and the power is controlled using the prime mover control (as you have studied in the last experiment). Sometimes, this bus is connected to a VAR device where the voltage can be controlled by varying the value of the injected VAR to the bus.


This bus is not connected to a generator so neither its voltage nor its real power can be controlled. On the other hand, the load connected to this bus will change the active and reactive power at the bus in a random manner. To solve the load flow problem we have to assume the complex power value (real and reactive) at this bus.

types of buses in power system

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Aanchal Gupta

Welcome to my website! I'm Aanchal Gupta, an expert in Electrical Technology, and I'm excited to share my knowledge and insights with you. With a strong educational background and practical experience, I aim to provide valuable information and solutions related to the field of electrical engineering. I hold a Bachelor of Engineering (BE) degree in Electrical Engineering, which has equipped me with a solid foundation in the principles and applications of electrical technology. Throughout my academic journey, I focused on developing a deep understanding of various electrical systems, circuits, and power distribution networks.

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