CLASSIFICATION OF POWER SYSTEM BUSES
Each bus in the system has four variables: voltage magnitude, voltage angle, real power, and reactive power. During the operation of the power system, each bus has two known variables and two unknowns. Generally, the bus must be classified as one of the following bus types:
1. SLACK OR SWING BUS
This bus is considered the reference bus. It must be connected to a generator of a high rating relative to the other generators. During the operation, the voltage of this bus is always specified and remains constant in magnitude and angle. In addition to the generation assigned to it according to economic operation, this bus is responsible for supplying the losses of the system.
2. GENERATOR OR VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED BUS
During the operation, the voltage magnitude at this bus is kept constant. Also, the active power supplied is kept constant at the value that satisfies the economic operation of the system. Most probably, this bus is connected to a generator where the voltage is controlled using the excitation and the power is controlled using the prime mover control (as you have studied in the last experiment). Sometimes, this bus is connected to a VAR device where the voltage can be controlled by varying the value of the injected VAR to the bus.
3. LOAD THE BUS
This bus is not connected to a generator so neither its voltage nor its real power can be controlled. On the other hand, the load connected to this bus will change the active and reactive power at the bus in a random manner. To solve the load flow problem we have to assume the complex power value (real and reactive) at this bus.
|Table: Classification of power system buses|
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