50+ Transformer Interview Question And Answer

## 50+ Transformer Interview Question And Answer

### Q: What is a Transformer?

A: A transformer is a static device that can transfer power from one circuit to another at the same frequency.

Q: How Does a Transformer Work?

A: The Transformer consists of two coils. If one coil is connected to an AC voltage source then it will produce alternating flux in the core. Most of the flux is linked with the second coil hence mutually induced emf will be produced in the second coil as per Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.

Q: Can DC be applied to transformers?

i) The transformer works on Faraday’s law of Electromagnetic Induction for which the current in the coil must change. If DC is applied current will not change and the transformer will not work.

ii) Practically winding resistance is very small. For DC, inductive reactance is zero and frequency is zero. Therefore impedance is low. Thus winding draws more current which may damage the winding.

Q: Give a symbolic representation of the transformer.

Q: What are the various types of Transformers?

Based on supply

1. Single-phase transformer

2. Three-phase transformer

Based on winding

1. Autotransformer (single winding)

2. Two winding transformer

3. Three winding transformer

4. Six winding transformer

Based on construction

1.  Core Type transformer

2.  Shell Type transformer

Based on the service

1.  Distribution transformer

2.  Power transformer

Based on measurement

1.  Current transformer

2.  potential transformer

Based on cooling

1.  Dry-type Transformer

2. Oil-immersed type transformer

Based on function

1. Step up transformer

2. Step down transformer

3. Isolation transformer

Q: What is a single and three-phase transformer?

The transformer that works on a single phase is called a single-phase transformer.

A transformer that works in three phases is called a phase transformer.

Q: What is Auto-transformer?

In this transformer, only one winding is used as primary and secondary. Also, primary and secondary are conductively coupled.

Q: What is a winding transformer?

Two separate windings one as primary and the other as secondary are used. Both windings are magnetically coupled.

Q: What is A winding transformer?

Three windings are used each work as primary and secondary. Also, primary and secondary windings are conductively coupled. They are three-phase autotransformer

Q: What is A winding transformer?

Three windings in primary and three windings in secondary are used, They are three phase transformers. They are connected in either star-star, delta-delta, star delta, or delta-star.

Q: Distinguish between core and shell-type transformer.

A:

Q: What are the advantages of shell-type transformers over core-type transformers?

In shell-type transformers, the coils are well supported on all sides so they can withstand higher mechanical stresses developed during short circuit conditions. Also, the leakage reactance will be less in shell-type transformers.

Q: Where is core-type and shell-type construction suitable for a transformer?

Core-type transformers are popular in High voltage applications like Distribution transformers, Power transformers, and obviously autotransformers. Whereas, Shell type transformers are popular in voltage applications like transformers used in electronic circuits and power electronic converters, etc

Q: What are power transformers?

The power transformer is used for transmission purposes at heavy load, high voltage greater than 33 KV & 100% efficiency. It is big in size as compared to a distribution transformer, it is used in generating stations and Transmission substations. It is generally rated above 200MVA.

Q: What are distribution transformers?

The distribution transformer is used for the distribution of electrical energy at low voltage as less than 33KV for industrial purposes and 440v-220v for domestic purposes. It works at low efficiency at 60-70%, is small in size, easy to install, has low magnetic losses & it is not always fully loaded.

Q: Why the efficiency of the distribution transformer is 60 to 70 % and not 100%?

The distribution transformer is designed for maximum efficiency at 60% to 70% load as it normally doesn’t operate at full load all the time. Its load depends on distribution demand. Whereas a power transformer is designed for maximum efficiency at 100% load as it always runs at 100% load being near to generating station.

Q: What are the salient features of a distribution transformer?

1.  The distribution transformer will have low iron loss and a higher value of copper loss

2.  The capacity of transformers will be up to 500 KVA

3.  The transformers will have plain walled tanks or be provided with cooling tubes or radiators.

4.  The leakage reactance and regulation will be low.

Q: Distinguish between a power transformer and a distribution transformer.

Q: What are Current transformers?

They are protective devices used to measure very high values of current in power systems. The Current Transformer ( C.T. ), is a type of “instrument transformer” that is designed to produce an alternating current in its secondary winding which is proportional to the current being measured in its primary

Q: What are Potential transformers?

They are protective devices used to measure very high values of voltage in a power system.

Q: What are dry-type transformers?

In this type of transformer, the air is used as a coolant. The heat is taken to the walls of the tank and dissipated to the surrounding air.

Q: What is oil immersed type transformer?

In this type of transformer, oil is used as a coolant. The entire assembly including core and windings is kept immersed in oil. The developed heat is transferred to the walls of the tank through oil. Finally, the heat is transferred to the surrounding air from the tank wall by radiation.

Q: What are step-up transformers?

They step up the voltage from a lower value to a higher value.

Q: What are step-down transformers?

They step up the voltage from a higher value to a lower value.

Q: What are isolation transformers?

In this type of transformer, the primary and secondary are the same. When it is required to isolate the primary and secondary circuits these types of transformers are used. It protects the circuits connected on the secondary side when a major fault occurs on the primary side.

Q: Why stepped cores are used?

(i)  To reduce the space effectively.

(ii) To obtain the reduced length of the mean turn of the windings.

(iii) To reduce  I² R loss.

Q:. What is the yoke section of transformers?

The sections of the core which connect the limbs are called yoke. The yoke is used to provide a closed path for the flux.

Q:. What is the purpose of laminating the core in a transformer?

In order to minimize eddy current loss.

Q: Explain the material used for core construction.

A: The core is constructed by sheet steel laminations assembled to provide a continuous magnetic path with a minimum of air-gap included.  The steel used is of high silicon content sometimes heat treated to produce a  high permeability and a  low hysteresis loss at the usual operating flux densities.  The eddy current loss is minimized by laminating the core,  the laminations being used from each other by a light coat of core plate varnish or by an oxide layer on the surface. The thickness of the lamination varies from 0.35mm for a frequency of 50 Hz and 0.5mm for a frequency of 25 Hz.

Q: Why the cross-section of iron is less than the total cross-section area of the core?

This is because the core is laminated & on each lamination, the insulations are used.

Q: What is the Stack factor?

The ratio of the total cross-section of iron to the total cross-section of the core is called the stacking factor.

Q: What is the EMF equation of the transformer?

Erms = 4.44 f Φ max  volt

Q: What is the voltage transformation ratio or turn ratio?

It is expressed as a ratio of the primary and secondary voltages of the transformer.

or

It is expressed as the ratio of the primary and secondary turns of the transformer.

E1/ E2= T1/T2 = K

Q: What is the transformation ratio for step-up, step, and isolation transformers?

K>1 for a step-up transformer

K<1 for a step-down transformer

K=1 for an isolation transformer

Q: What are the properties of an ideal transformer?

1. There should be no losses

2. The winding should have zero resistance

3. The leakage flux should be zero

4. The permeability of the core should be so high that a negligible current is required to establish the flux in it.

Q. What are the functions of no-load current in a transformer?

The no-load current produces flux and supplies iron loss and copper loss on no-load.

Q: Does the transformer draw any current when the secondary is open? Why?

Yes, it (primary) will draw the current from the main supply in order to magnetize the core and to supply iron and copper losses on no load. There will not be any current in the secondary since the secondary is open

Q: What are two components of no-load current in a transformer?

i) IM (Magnetizing/reactive /wattless) current. It magnetizes core

ii) Iw (Coreloss/ active/wattful ) current. It supplies hysteresis and eddy current loss and negligible  I² R loss.

Q: How much is the no-load current of the transformer?

No load current of the transformer is 3 to 5% of the rated current in the transformer.

Q: Give equivalent resistance, reactance, and impedance referred to the primary circuit.

Req = R1 +R2‘ =  R1+a² R2

Xeq = X1 +X2‘ =  X1+a² X2

Zeq = Z1 +Z2‘ =  Z1+a² Z2

where a=T1/T2

Q: Give equivalent resistance, reactance, and impedance referred to the secondary circuit.

Req = R2 +R1′ =  R2+ R1’/a²

Xeq = X2 +X1′ =  X2+ X1’/a²

Zeq = Z2 + Z1′ =  Z2+ Z1’/a²

where a=T1/T2

Q: Why to calculate equivalent impedance referred to the primary or secondary side?

Equivalent impedance is essential to be calculated because the electrical power transformer is an electric power system equipment, for estimating different parameters of an electric power system which may be required to calculate the total internal impedance of an electric power transformer, viewing from the primary side or secondary side as per requirement. This calculation requires an equivalent circuit of transformer referred to as primary or equivalent circuit of transformer referred to as secondary sides respectively.

Q: What is Meant by Regulation in a Transformer?

Voltage regulation in transformers is the difference between the no-load voltage and the full-load voltage.

This is usually expressed in terms of percentage. For example: If a transformer delivers 100 volts at no load and the voltage drops to 95_volts at full load, the regulation would be 5%.

dry type distribution transformers generally have regulation from 2% to 4%, depending on the size and the application for which they are used.The change in secondary terminal voltage from no load to full load expressed as a percentage of no load or full load voltage is termed as regulation.

%regulation =E2-V2/E2 *100

%regulation = voltage drop in transformer/ no-load voltage of transformer

Q: What is the condition for zero voltage regulation?

Q: What is the condition for maximum voltage regulation?

It occurs when the load is inductive and the power factor is lagging.

Q: What are the factors affecting voltage regulation?

Equivalent resistance

Equivalent reactance

power factor

Q: What is Eddy current loss in transformer?

In a transformer, we supply alternating current in the primary, this alternating current produces alternating magnetizing flux in the core and as this flux links with a secondary winding, there will be induced voltage in the secondary, resulting in current flowing through the load connected with it. Some of the alternating fluxes of a transformer; may also link with other conducting parts like the steel core or iron body of the transformer etc. As alternating flux links with these parts of the transformer, there would be a locally induced emf. Due to these EMFs, there would be currents that will circulate locally at that parts of the transformer. These circulating currents will not contribute to the output of the transformer and dissipate heat. This type of energy loss is called eddy current loss of the transformer.

Q: How to minimize Eddy’s current loss?

By using less thickness of laminations

By using less value of Magnetic flux density

Q: What is hysteresis loss in a transformer?

The magneto motive force or mmf applied in the transformer core is alternating. For every cycle due to this domain reversal, there will be extra work done. For this reason, there will be a consumption of electrical energy which is known as Hysteresis loss of transformer.

Q: How to minimize Hysteresis loss?

By using good magnetic material.

By using less value of Magnetic flux density

Q. Why are iron losses considered as constant losses in transformers?

Iron losses depend on supply frequency and flux density in the core. For all normal operations, the frequency of flux reversals which is the same as supply frequency is constant and the value of flux density more or less remains constant. Hence iron losses remain constant under all load conditions. i-e from no-load to full-load

Q: Why transformers are rated in kVA?

A: Copper loss of a transformer depends on current and iron loss on voltage. Hence total losses depend on Volt- Ampere and not on the power factor. That is why the rating of transformers is in kVA and not in kW.

Q. Define the efficiency of the transformer.

Transformer efficiency ƞ= (output power/input power) x 100

Q: What is the range of efficiency of transformers?

A: The efficiency of the transformer will be in the range of 94% to 99%. Among the available electrical machines, the transformer has the highest efficiency

Q.Why the range of efficiency in transformers higher than those of other electrical machines?

Transformers operate at a higher efficiency when compared to other electrical machines. This is due to the absence of mechanical losses which is due to the absence of moving parts

Q: What is the condition for maximum efficiency of the transformer?

When Iron losses is equal to copper losses.

Q: Define the day efficiency of a transformer.

A: It is computed on the basis of energy consumed during a certain period, usually a day of 24 hrs. All day efficiency = output in kWh/input in kWh for 24 hrs.

Q: What are the necessary tests to determine the efficiency, voltage regulation, and temperature rise of winding & insulation of the transformer?

2. Open circuit test

3. Short circuit test

4. Sumpner’s or back to back test

Q: What is determined from an open circuit test?

Iron loss

Q. Why is the OC test generally performed on the LV side of a transformer?

The high-voltage side is generally kept open because the current in high-voltage winding is less compared to that in low-voltage winding. The LV side has a higher current so that maximum no-load current can be measured.

Q.Why SC test is generally performed on the HV side of a transformer?

The rated current is less on the HV side. This will also permit to use ammeter and wattmeter of the lower current range.

Q: Why the open circuit test on a transformer is conducted at rated voltage?

A: The open circuit on a transformer is conducted at a rated voltage because core loss depends upon the voltage. This open circuit test gives only core loss or iron loss of the transformer.

Q: What is determined from a short circuit test?

Copper loss

Q: What is determined from Sumpner’s test?

Efficiency as well as temperature rise of winding.

QWhy Sumpner’s test is carried out?

Loading a transformer is a very difficult thing to test. Say the transformer is rated at 300 MVA, how do find a 300 load to test your transformer? Also, the load will waste all of its energy to heat. Sumpner’s test allows one to fully load a transformer without actually having that load. The energy lost is only equal to the losses in the transformers, nothing that the transformer cooling system cannot handle. In Sumpner’s test two transformers are connected back-to-back means, primaries of two transformers are connected in parallel and secondary side is connected in series.

Q: What is the need for parallel operation of the transformer?

-Nonavailability of a single large transformer to meet the load

-Increased power demand

-To improve reliability

-If many smaller transformer is used one can be used as a spare

-Transportation problem for large transformer.

Q: What are the conditions for parallel operation of the transformer?

-Equal polarity

-Equal turn ratio

-percentage impedance should be the same

-Equal X/R ratio

-Equal KVA rating

-Equal phase sequence

Q: What will happen if the transformer in a parallel connection has opposite polarity?

Connecting transformers with the wrong polarity can result in circulating currents or short circuits

Q: What will happen if a transformer in a parallel connection has a different voltage ratio?

Two transformers in Parallel should have the same primary and secondary voltage ratings.  Any error in the voltage ratio would cause heavy circulating currents to flow between the transformers. This circulating current will result in a corresponding imbalance in the primary currents, and result in the overloading of one transformer.  This circulating current will result in increased copper losses.

Q: What will happen if a transformer in a parallel connection has a different percentage impedance or X/R ratio?

A difference in the ratio of the reactance value to the resistance value of the per unit impedance results in a different phase angle of the currents carried by the two paralleled transformers; one transformer will be working with a higher power factor and the other with a lower power factor than that of the combined output. Hence, the real power will not be proportionally shared by the transformers.

Q: What will happen if the transformer in a parallel connection has a different phase sequence?

If the phase sequence is in an incorrect manner, in every cycle each pair of phases will get short-circuited.

Q: What are the typical uses of autotransformer ?

i) As a booster to compensate for the voltage drop for better regulation

ii)As induction motor starters.

iii) In locomotive

iv) As a furnace transformer

Q. List the merits of an autotransformer.

Require less conductor material

low cost

low size

high VA rating

high efficiency

Better voltage regulation

Q: Compare two winding transformers with Auto Transformer

Q. Why is an auto-transformer not used as a distribution transformer?

The autotransformer cannot provide isolation between the HV and LV sides. Due to an open circuit in the common portion, the voltage on the load side may shoot up to dangerously high voltage causing damage to equipment. This unexpected rise in the voltage on the LV side is potentially dangerous. Hence the autotransformer cannot be used as a distribution transformer

Q: What are the factors affecting the selection of Maximum flux density?

1. Net core weight: The higher the flux density lesser the net weight of the core.

2. Saving in copper: The higher the flux density lesser the mean turn of windings.

3. Overall economy: Higher the flux density lesser net weight of core and windings. Hence cheaper

4.Net weight: Due to the above reasons weight is also reduced.

5. High magnetizing current due to higher flux density

6. High Flux density results in high losses

7. High Flux density results in high losses and hence efficiency decreases

8. Hence high-temperature rise and noise

Q: What is the window space factor?

It is the ratio of the copper area in the window to the total window area.

Q. What is a transformer bank?

A transformer bank consists of three independent single-phase transformers with their primary and secondary windings connected either in star or delta.

Q: What are the advantages of a three single phase transformer over a three phase transformer?

1. Continuity of supply

2. Less Installation cost

3. Easy transportation

4. Stand by function

Q: What are the advantages of a phase transformer over a three-phase transformer?

1. Saving in iron material

2. Small size

3. Less transformer oil

4. Economical

5. Higher efficiency

Q. What are the various types of three-phase transformer connections?

The most common types of transformer connections are,

i. Star-Star (Y-Y)

ii. Delta-Delta(∆-∆)

iii. Star-Delta (Y-∆)

iv. Delta-Star (∆-Y)

v. Open Delta (V-V)

vi. Scott Connection (T-T)

Q: Which type of connection is used in the distribution transformer?

Distribution transformers are connected in delta-star. This arrangement requires 3 conductors on the high voltage side and 4 on the low voltage side, as well as it provides the star point conductor as a neutral point. This can serve single-phase as well as three-phase loads.

Q: Why are breathers used in transformers?

Breathers are used to entrap the atmospheric moisture thereby not allowing it to pass on to the transformer oil. Also it permits the oil inside the tank to expand and contract as its temperature increases and decreases. Also to avoid sledging of oil i.e. decomposition of oil.

Q:  Why silica gel is used in breathing?

The silica gel is used to absorb the moisture when the air is drawn from the atmosphere into the transformer.

Q. What is the color of silica gel in the dry stage and when saturated with moisture in a breather?

Dry stage – Deep blue

Saturated stage – Whitish pink

Q: What is the function of transformer oil in a transformer?

Transformer oil provides, (i)good insulation and (ii)cooling. Nowadays instead of natural mineral oil, synthetic oils known as ASKRELS (trade name ) are used. They are non-inflammable, under an electric arc do not decompose to produce inflammable gases. PYROCOLOR oil possesses high dielectric strength.

Q: Mention the properties of oil used in transformers.

The following are the desirable properties of transformer oil:

–>It should be free from moisture

–> It should have a high dielectric strength

–> It should have thermal stability and higher thermal conductivity

–>It should be contaminated by temperature rise.

Q: Why transformer oil is used as a cooling medium?

When transformer oil is used as a coolant the heat dissipation by convection is 10 times more than the convection due to air. Hence transformer oil is used as a cooling medium.

Q:  What is a conservator?

A conservator is a small cylindrical drum fitted just above the transformer’s main tank. It is used to allow the expansion and contraction of oil without contact with the surrounding atmosphere. When the conservator is fitted in a transformer, the tank is fully filled with oil and the conservator is half filled with oil.

Q: What is buchholz relay?

It protects the transformer from internal faults like earth faults, winding short circuits, short circuits between phases, Puncture of bushing, etc.

Q: Where is buchholz relay located?

It is located between the transformer tank and the conservator.

Q.In Buchholz relay how the top and bottom mercury switches are connected?

The top mercury switch is connected to the alarm and the bottom switch is for the trip.

Q: What is the purpose of providing Taps in the transformer and where these are provided?

In order to attain the required voltage, taps are provided, normally at the high voltage side(low current).

Q: In transformers, why the low voltage winding is placed near the core?

The winding and core are both made of metals so insulation has to be placed in between them, the thickness of the insulation depends on the voltage rating of the winding. In order to reduce the insulation requirement the low-voltage winding placed near the core.

Q: Why the tapings are placed on the HV side?

1. Afine voltage regulation is possible with the hV side as it has a large number of turns.

2. The LV side carries a large current

3. HV side is placed outside so it’s feasible

4. In the case of step-down transformer at light loads the HV side voltage increases, it is required to decrease this voltage by adjusting the tappings on the HV. With a large no. of turns the flux and flux density decrease. Hence core losses decrease resulting in higher efficiency.

Q: List some methods of cooling transformers.

A: Air natural, Air blast, Oil Natural, Oil natural air forced, Oil natural water forced, Oil forced, Oil forced air natural, Oil forced air natural, Oil forced water forced.

Q: What are the factors to be considered for choosing the method of cooling?

The choice of cooling method depends on the KVA rating of the transformer, size, application, and the site conditions where it will be installed.

Q:  How the heat dissipate in a transformer?

The heat dissipation of a transformer occurs by convection, conduction, and radiation.

Q: Why cooling tubes are provided?

Cooling tubes are provided to increase the heat-dissipating area of the tank.

Q:  How the heat dissipation improved by providing the cooling tubes?

The cooling tubes will improve the circulation of oil. The circulation of oil is due to effective pressure heads produced by columns of oil in tubes. The improvement in cooling is accounted by taking the specific heat dissipation due to convection as 35% more than that without tubes.

Q:  How the leakage reactance of the transformer is reduced?

In transformers the leakage reactance is reduced by interleaving the high voltage and low voltage winding.

Q: How does a change in frequency affect the operation of a given transformer?

With a change in frequency, iron and copper loss, regulation, efficiency & heating varies so the operation of the transformer is highly affected.

Q: What is the Difference Between “Insulating”, “Isolating”, and “Shielded Winding” Transformers?

Insulating and Isolating transformers are identical. These terms are used to describe the isolation of the primary and secondary windings, or insulation between the two. A shielded winding transformer, on the other hand, is designed with a metallic shield between the primary and secondary windings, providing a safety factor by grounding, thus preventing accidental contact between windings under faulty conditions. All two, three, and four winding transformers are of the insulating or isolating types. Only autotransformers, which are a type whose primary and secondary are connected to each other electrically, are not of the insulating or isolating variety.

Q: Can Transformers be Operated at Voltages other than Nameplate Voltages?

In some cases, transformers can be operated at voltages below the nameplate-rated voltage. In NO case should a transformer be operated at a voltage in excess of its name-plate rating unless taps are provided for this purpose. When operating below the rated voltage the KVA capacity is reduced correspondingly. For example, if a 480-volt primary trans¬former with a 240-volt secondary is operated at 240 volts, the secondary voltage is reduced to 120 volts and if the trans¬former were originally rated 10 KVA, the reduced rating would be 5 KVA, or in direct proportion to the applied voltage.

Q: What are the applications of step-up & step-down transformers?

A: Step-up transformers are used in generating stations. Normally the generated voltage will be either  11kV.  This voltage  (11kV)  is stepped up to  110kV 220kV  or 400KV and transmitted through transmission lines  (simply called as sending end voltage). Step-down transformers are used in receiving stations. The voltage is stepped down to 11kV or 22kV is stepped down to  3phase  400V  by means of a  distribution transformer and made available at consumer premises. The transformers used at generating stations are called power transformers.

Q. What is the vector group of the distribution transformer?

Dy11

Q. What is the humming of the transformer?

Humming is a sound, which is produced due to the vibration of the cores in the transformer. The vibrations are produced due to the change in polarity of an alternating current or voltage and by the loss of lamination of the core. Both can be minimized by tightening the core of the transformer.

Q:  Can 60 Hz transformers be operated at 50 Hz?

The transformers rated below 1 KVA can be used on 50 Hz service. Transformers 1 KVA and larger, rated at 60 Hz, should not be used on 50 Hz service, due to the higher losses and resultant heat rise. Special designs are required for this service. However, any 50 Hz transformer will operate on a 60 Hz service.

Q: Is it Possible to Change Three Phases to Two Phases or vice versa with Standard Transformers?

Yes. This is a very practical application for standard single-phase off-the-shelf transformers. Some typical voltage combinations are as follows: 480 volts three phase to 240 volts two-phase, or 240 volts three phase to 480 volts two-phase, or 240 volts three phase to 240 volts two-phase. Please refer to us for an exact schematic.

Q: List four applications of a transformer.

It can raise or lower the voltage or current in an AC circuit.

It can act as an impedance-transferring device by increasing or decreasing the value of a capacitor, inductor or resistance in an AC circuit.

It can isolate two circuits electrically.

It can be used to prevent DC from passing from one circuit to another

Q: What is the cause of noise in the transformer?

The cause of noise in the transformer is mainly because of the magnetostriction effect and also the loosening of stampings and mechanical forces produced during working.

Q: What is tertiary winding?

Some three-phase transformers may have a third winding called tertiary winding apart from primary and secondary. It is also called auxiliary winding or stabilizing winding. The tertiary winding is provided in a transformer for any one of the following reasons, (i) to supply a small additional load at a different voltage (ii) to supply to phase compensating devices such as capacitors which work at different voltages. iii) to limit short circuit current. iv) to indicate voltage in high voltage testing transformer

Q:The area of the yoke in a transformer is taken 15 to 20% larger than that of the core. Why?

By keeping yoke area 15-20% higher, the flux density in the yoke is reduced, resulting in a reduction in iron losses for yoke. The reduced core area results in working flux density and needed to increase the number of turns.

Q: Why do we need isolation transformers in power circuits? why can’t we use breakers to isolate?

In Isolation transformer is used, if there is a change in parameter values of any side, the other side parameters will remain unchanged.

Q: Why do transformers hum?

Transformer noise is caused by a phenomenon that causes a piece of magnetic sheet steel to extend itself when magnetized. When the magnetization is taken away, it goes back to its original condition. This phenomenon is scientifically referred to as magnetostriction. A transformer is magnetically excited by an alternating voltage and current so that it becomes extended and contracted twice during a full cycle of magnetization.

The magnetization of any given point on the sheet varies, so the extension and contraction is not uniform. A transformer core is made from many sheets of special steel to reduce losses and moderate the ensuing heating effect. The extensions and contractions are taking place erratically all over a sheet. These extensions are proportionally and therefore not normally visible to the naked eye. However, they are sufficient to cause a vibration, and consequently noise. Applying voltage to a transformer produces a magnetic flux or magnetic lines of force in the core. The degree of flux determines the amount of magnetostriction and hence, the noise level.

Q: Why not reduce the noise in the core by reducing the amount of flux?

Transformer voltages are fixed by system requirements. The ratio of these voltages to the number of turns in the winding determines the amount of magnetization. This ratio of voltage to turns is determined mainly for economical soundness. Therefore the amount of flux at the normal voltage is fixed. This also fixes the level of noise and vibration.

### Aanchal Gupta

Welcome to my website! I'm Aanchal Gupta, an expert in Electrical Technology, and I'm excited to share my knowledge and insights with you. With a strong educational background and practical experience, I aim to provide valuable information and solutions related to the field of electrical engineering. I hold a Bachelor of Engineering (BE) degree in Electrical Engineering, which has equipped me with a solid foundation in the principles and applications of electrical technology. Throughout my academic journey, I focused on developing a deep understanding of various electrical systems, circuits, and power distribution networks.