Q. 1. A metallic sphere is charged negatively. Will its mass increase, decrease, or remain than same?
Ans. When the sphere is negatively charged, it means electrons have been added to it. Since electrons have finite mass, the mass of the negatively charged sphere will increase.
Q. 2. Electrostatic experiments cannot be conducted successfully on humid days. Explain.
Ans. The humid air becomes conducting. Therefore, the static charge on the apparatus leaks off into the air. For this reason, electrostatic experiments do not work well on humid days.
Q. 3. What are the most significant differences between electrostatic forces and gravitational forces?
Ans. (i) Gravitational forces are always attractive but electrostatic forces may be attractive or repulsive depending upon the signs of the charges.
(ii) The gravitational constant (G) is independent of the nature of the medium. However. electrical constant k (= 1/4πε0εr)depends upon the nature of the medium.
(iii) Electrostatic forces are extremely large as compared to gravitational forces. For example, the electrostatic force of attraction between an electron and a proton is about 1039 times stronger than the gravitational force between them.
Q. 4. What similarities do electrostatic .forces have to gravitational forces?
Ans. (i) Both obey inverse square law.
(ii) Both are central forces, i.e., forces act along the lines joining the centers of the bodies.
(iii) Both are conservative forces. i.e., work done by them does not depend upon the path followed.
(iv) Both involve the property of the interacting particles—the mass in one case and the charge in the other.
Q. 5. Any conducting objected connected to the earth is said to be grounded. Explain.
Ans. Because the earth is a very big source of electrons or sink. Its potential remains const whether electrons are given to it or removed from it. For this reason, the electric potential of the earth is assumed zero.
Q.6. Vehicles carrying inflammable materials usually haw chains that hang down and drag on the ground.
Ans. When a vehicle is in motion, its tyres rub against the road and get charged due to friction. Further, due to friction or air, the body of the vehicle also gets charged. If the accumulated charge becomes excessive, sparking may occur and the inflammable material may catch fire. Since the chain ropes are touching the ground, the charge leaks to the earth. Hence, the danger or tire is avoided.
Q. 7. You cannot disturb the electrical neutrality of ordinary matter very much. Explain.
Ans. Under ordinary conditions, a body is electrically neutral, i.e., it has the same amounts of positive charge and negative charge. When a body is charged (positively or negatively this electrical neutrality is disturbed. Suppose you are charging a body positively by removing electrons from it. The positive charge on the body tends to pull the negative charge (i.e, electrons) hack. As the body gets more and more positive charge, the electrostatic force tending to pull the negative charge hack also increases. Thereby we cannot place a large charge (positive or negative) on a body.
Q. 8. If Q1 02 < O. what can one say about the nature of /dice between the charges?
Ans. If Q1 Q2 < 0, it means the product of the magnitude of the charges is negative. In other words, these are unlike charges, i.e., one charge is positive and the other charge is negative. Hence, the electrostatic force between them is attractive.
Q. 9. Why is electric current and not charge taken as the Andamental quantity in SI units?
Ans. For practical reasons, electric current and no a charge have been taken as the fundamental quantity, although one is derivable from the other ( q = It). The important consideration which led to the selection of current as the fundamental quantity is that it serves as the link between electric, magnetic and mechanical quantities and can be readily measured.
Q. 10. Although ordinary rubber is insulator the rubber tyres of aircraft city made slightly conducting. Why?
Ans. During the take-off and landing, the friction between tyres and the run-way causes electrification of tyres. If the tyres are non-conducting, the excessive charge will accumulate on the tyres which may cause sparking. If the material of the tyres is slightly conducting. the accumulated charge can flow to earth, thus eliminating any danger of fire.
Q. 11. Compare eletric charge and mass.
Ans. (i) Electric kluirge ‘nay he positive or negative. However, mass is always positive.
(ii) Electrie charge on It body is independent of the speed of the body. However, the mass of a body increases with the speed of the body.
(iii) Electric charge is quantized, i.e., charge on a body, Q = ±n e where n= 1, 2, 3 … and e = 1.6 * 10-19 C. However, quantization ol’mass is not known.
Q. 12. When you run comb through hair, itattracts bits of paper Why? What would you expect if the hair is wet or if it is a rainy day?
Ans. When we run comb through hair, the comb gets charged due to friction and as a result it attracts bits of paper. If the hair is wet, friction between comb and hair is greatly reduced. Consequently, the comb is charged to a lesser extent and it may not attract the bits of the paper. The same is true if it is a rainy day. It is because due to higher humidity, the hair do not remain perfectly dry.
Q. 13. Can we charge a hods’ to have a charge of 15e/2?
Ans. No. Any charged body can have a charge equal to the integral multiple of ± e, i.e., ± e, ± 2e, ± 3e ….
Q. 14. Electric potential at a point is 10 V What do you mean by it?
Ans. It means that if we place a charge of 1 C at that point, the charge will have a potential energy of 10 J. Similarly, if we place a charge of 2 C, the charge will have a potential energy of 20 J . Note that potential energy per unit charge (i.e., electric potential) is 10 V.
Q. 15. The potential difference between two points in an electric field is 20 V What does it mean?
Ans. It means that 20 J of.work will have to be done to bring +1 C of charge from the point of lower potential to the point of higher potential. Alternatively, if +1 C of charge moves from the point of higher potential to the point of lower potential, 20 J of energy will be released.